VOLUME 41, NO4, AUG-2019
12
 
Production of Biogas from Kitchen Waste with Inoculum and Study the Effect of Different Parameters

Muhammad Sohail Bashir, Aqsa Safdar, Shoaib Zaheer, Abdul Rehman Farooqi, Muhammad Jamil

Household kitchen waste quantity is increasing rapidly because of the population explosion. Agricultural growth and intensive animal farming are generating a large quantity of bio waste. Disposing of this huge amount of waste is a serious environmental issue of the world. This waste can be used as an alternative source for the generation of green fuel by converting it to biogas. Though, a lot of work has been done on biogas production from conventional feedstock. However, it is highly desired to improve and optimize the process with kitchen waste used as feedstock. In this paper, cost-effective, environmentally friendly and high-quality biogas is produced by anaerobic digestion of kitchen waste mixture with inoculum. Inoculum is used as a source of microbial population. It is prepared by mixing of cow dung and water with a weight ratio of 1:5. The effect of temperature, pH, and the weight ratio of inoculum/kitchen waste on the production of biogas has been studied. The results indicated that the optimum pH value is 7.5 and for the maximum production of biogas temperature should be 37 ˚C. The optimum weight ratio of inoculum/kitchen waste is 60/40. The quality of biogas is improved by the absorption of CO2 from it with the aid of absorber contains 2 M solution of NaOH. The gas was burnt smoothly with a blue flame. This indicates the high content of CH4 in biogas. It is a green heating and cooking fuel and can be used for transport and power generation.
Pages(563)
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Characterization and Synthesis of This Comb Type Copolymer with Styrene Using A Macromonomer Containing Polyethylmethacrylate

Aslışah Açıkses and Süleyman Saraç

In this study, firstly 7-hydroxy-4-chloromethyl coumarin (CMHC) was synthesized from reaction of ethyl 4-chloroacetoasetate with resorcinol. Then, the poly(ethyl methacrylate) coumarin end grouped having hydroxyl (CEMA) was prepared by ethyl methacrylate with using (CMHC) as initiator by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) method. A macromonomer (CMEMA) was synthesized from reaction of methacryloyl chloride and poly(EMA) ended coumarin having OH group (CEMA). Molecular brush of P(CMEMA-comb-%16St) was synthesized by reaction of macromonomer CMEMA and styrene by free radical polymerization method (SRP). The structures of the prepared macromonomer and molecular brush were characterized by FT-IR and 1H-NMR techniques. The thermal behavior of P(CMEMA-comb-%St) has been investigated by TGA, and the glass transition temperatures have been measured on DSC. The average molecular weights and polydispersity were determined by GPC. The dielectric behavior of P(CMEMA-comb-%16St) was investigated as a function of temperature and frequency. The intrinsic viscosity [] of P(CMEMA-comb-%16St) was determinated.
Pages(569)
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Self-Assembly Synthesis and Electrochemical Performance of Partially Reduced Graphene Oxide Supported Hierarchical MnO2 Nanonocomposite for Supercapacitor

Muhammad Ishaq, Maher Jabeen, and Weiming Song

Partially reduced graphene oxide supported hierarchical birnessite-type manganese oxide (MnO2) nanonocomposite (MnO2-pGO) with large surface area (116 m2 g-1) were successfully synthesized by a facile ultrahigh dilute vesicle solution approach, via surfactant Hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS), as a structure-directing agent. The resultant structure exhibit hierarchical porous MnO2 nanocluster, which were self-assembled from elongated nanorods and grafted successfully on the surface of the pGO nanosheets. Furthermore, the obtained MnO2-pGO nanocomposite was found to exhibit favorable electrochemical activity showing ultra-high specific capacitance of (282 F/g at 0.5 A/g), the enhanced rate capability of (67.7%) at 10 A/g), the most stable capacitance retention (91.4 %of its initial capacitance was retains after 5000 cycles, with ∼100% Coulombic efficiency). The result suggests that the approach is not only effective to deposit MnO2 over the pGO sheets, but also offered great promise to prepare other pGO- metal oxide composite electrode materials for supercapacitor.
Pages(577)
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Synthesis, Characterization, Antimicrobial Activity and Theoretical Studies of New Polymeric Schiff-base

Maha Abid Al-Hussain Hameed, Maida Abdulaa Adnan

A novel Schiff-base compound was synthesized by condensation of 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde and 4-aminoazobenzene. The prepared Schiff-base was converted to a polymer by reaction with formaldehyde and resorcinol. The two types of the prepared compounds were characterized with spectral techniques (FT-IR and 1H-NMR). The biological activity as antibacterial and antifungal was tested using the cork well diffusion method against some standard microorganisms, which indicate that these compounds showed good antimicrobial activity. HyperChem-8 program has been used to determine total energy, LUMO-HOMO, bond length and angles.
Pages(591)
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Tuning Photocatalytic Activity and Decomposition Properties of Poly(Polyethylene Glycol Diacrylate-co-Hydroxyethyl Methacrylate)/TiO2 Composite Hydrogel

Melek Tezcan, Huseyin Cicek, Meryem Cicek and Said Nadeem

We have synthesized TiO2-loaded porous polyethylene glycol diacrylate-co-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (poly(PEGDA-co-HEMA)) hydrogel composites having tunable photocatalytic properties with structural decomposition. TiO2 was loaded over hydrogels by impregnation of titanium oxobutyrate (Ti(OBu)4), peptized at room temperature that resulted poly(PEGDA-co-HEMA)/TiO2 composites. Pore morphology, crystalline structure and TiO2 content of the hydrogels/composites were examined using SEM, XRD and TGA analyses. Structural decomposition rate of the composite hydrogels and model contaminant (methyl orange) was performed under simulated sun light. Suitable pore size, morphology and higher PEGDA/HEMA ratio in the formulation increased the structural decomposition rate of the polymer that works as a TiO2 template. As the template breaks out, it leaves behind a porous TiO2 skeleton – thus accelerates the photocatalytic activity. Although the TiO2 template did not formed at lower PEGDA/HEMA ratio and lower molecular weight of PEGDA, decomposition rate of the composite slowed down (10 % in 108 h). The prepared hydrogels can be used in the skin care & engineering and waste water treatments.
Pages(598)
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Modelling for Gas Transport in Enhanced Polymeric Blend Membrane

Asim Mushtaq, Hilmi Mukhtar and Azmi Mohd Shariff

The main aim of this research work is to develop a model of carbon dioxide (CO2) separation from natural gas by using membrane separation technology. This study includes the transport mechanism of the porous membrane. The fundamental theories of diffusion, poiseuille (viscous) flow, Knudsen diffusion and surface diffusion are used. The developed model of incorporating three diffusion mechanisms to be modified for modeling of polymeric blends towards membrane selectivity and permeability. For the purpose of assessing the gas permeance using the theoretical models, the experimental data taken from CO2 permeance in the PSU/PVAc (85/15) wt. % /DEA enhanced polymeric blend membrane was considered. The results obtained from modified Cho Empirical model of total gas permeance showed the least error as compared to other models. The modified Cho Empirical mathematical models were extended by blending factor to predict CO2 gas molecule transport in Enhanced Polymeric Blend Membrane (EPBM) to obtain precise theoretical values that are close to the experimental values. The Extended modified Cho Empirical model validation demonstrated the ability to predict CO2 permeance with reasonable accuracy.
Pages(613)
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Synthesis, Characterization and Dyeing Assessment of Novel Acid Dyes on Wool Fabric IV

Zeeshan Akhtar, Syed Imran Ali, Syed Rizwan Ali, Sadia Khan, Feroz Alam, Naseem Abbas and Muhammad Yasir Khan

We report synthesis and performance evaluation of a series of novel acid dyes based on diazotized substituted aryl amines and employing substituted naphthalene sulfonic acids as coupling component. The synthesized dyes were thoroughly characterized using UV-visible, IR, 1HNMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis and negative MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analysis. The effectiveness of these dyes was evaluated by applying them on wool fabric using a standard exhaust dyeing procedure. The results for washing, light, perspiration and rubbing fastness of the dyed fabric demonstrate excellent fixation, binding strength and fastness properties which indicate that they are suitable for industrial wool dyeing operations.
Pages(633)
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Analysis of the Interaction Mechanisms of Polysaccharide Homologs Binding with Serum Albumin Using Capillary Electrophorsis

Ming Guo, Da Lv, Chunyan Shao, Yi Kuang and Zhihong Sun

Different polysaccharide homologs (as the ligand) binding to serum albumin (bovine serum albumin (BSA)) as the receptor were investigated by capillary electrophoresis (CE). The Hummel–Dreyer method (HD), frontal analysis method(FA), and vacant peak method(VP) were used to measure the interaction parameters of the polysaccharide-BSA system. A workable CE method was selected by comparing different analytical methods and a feasible binding model was established by evaluating the different theoretical equations. The binding mechanism of polysaccharide-BSA was also explored under physiological conditions. The results showed that both HD and FA method can be used to analyze the polysaccharide-BSA system, with the most suitable CE method being the HD, and the double logarithmic equation gives the best fit to the data. The binding parameters indicate that the interaction between polysaccharides and BSA had moderate affinity, which had only one type of binding site. This work provides a reference for future studies of polysaccharide-protein interactions.
Pages(640)
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Silicon Carbide Effect as Reinforcement on Aluminium Metal Matrix Composite

Ali Dad Chandio, Muhammad Basit Ansari, Shahid Hussain, Muhammad Ali Siddiqui

In the present study aluminium silicon carbide (Al/SiC) composites were prepared by powder metallurgical method. The mechanical and morphological evaluation were studied upon the variation of reinforcements percentages i.e.10, 15 and 20 wt.% of SiC powder were used as the reinforcements in aluminium matrix. The comparison of powder metallurgy method with stir casting method of Al/ (SiC) composites preparation was performed and the particle reinforcements were visualized through Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The results demonstrated increased hardness with increasing wt. % of SiC particles. This was attributed to efficient stress transfer and dislocation strengthening. In addition, the densification behaviour of the composites was also studied and SiC particulates were found to exhibit profound effect on composites density.
Pages(650)
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Incorporation of Carbon Nanotubes on Strategically De-Sized Carbon Fibers for Enhanced Interlaminar Shear Strength of Epoxy Matrix Composites

Muhammad Abdul Basit, Sybt-e-anwar Qais, Muhammad Saffee Ullah Malik and Ghufran Ur Rehman, Faizan Siddique Awan, Laraib Alam Khan and Tayyab Subhani

Carbon fiber reinforced polymeric matrix composites are enormously used in aerospace and automotive industries due to their enhanced specific properties. However, the area of interlaminar shear properties still needs investigation so as to produce composites with improved through-the-thickness properties. To improve interlaminar shear properties of these composites, acid-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes were deposited on de-sized carbon fibers through electrophoretic deposition. De-sizing of carbon fabric was performed through three different methods: furnace heating, acidic treatment and chloroform usage. As the acid-treatment provided better results than other two techniques, the acid-de-sized carbon fibers were coated with nanotubes and subsequently incorporated in epoxy matrix to prepare a novel class of multiscale composites using vacuum assisted resin transfer molding technique. Nearly 30% rise in the interlaminar shear strength of the composites was obtained which was credited to the coating of nanotubes on the surface of carbon fibers. The increased adhesion between carbon fibers and epoxy matrix due to mechanical interlocking of nanotubes was found to be the possible reason of improved interlaminar shear properties.
Pages(655)
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