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Welcome to Journal of The Chemical Society Of Pakistan

Journal of the Chemical Society of Pakistan (JCSP) is a bimonthly Journal which publishes results of original, unpublished research work and review articles in all fields of Chemistry.

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A Facile Approach of Preparing Nickel Nanoparticles on Porous Silicon Surface and its Catalytic Activities on Reducing of Nitroaromatics

XIANG LIU, HEMING CHENG

A facile approach of preparing nickel nanoparticles (Ni NPs) on porous silicon (PSi) surface and the catalysis towards reduction of nitroaromatics are depicted in this work in detail. When the PSi chip was immersed in the mixture of 40 % ammonium fluoride and 0.02 M nickel sulfate solutions with volume ratio of 1:1 at 60°C for 15 min, a large number of Ni NPs were generated on PSi surface, which exhibited high catalytic activities on reducing nitro groups of aromatics in the presence of sodium borohydride at ambient temperature. A suggested mechanism of Ni NPs generation on PSi surface was put forward according to theoretical and experimental analyses. The resultant Ni NPs on PSi surface were demonstrated with scanning electron microscopy and the reducing reactions are monitored with ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy
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Critical Intermolecular Forces: A New Physical Insight for the Formation of Wormlike Micelles

RABAH ALI KHALIL, FAHAD JUMAAH HAMMAD

Up to present date, no obvious and reasonable theoretical approach interpreting the formation of worm- or thread-like micelles together with the accompanying sharp change in the rheological properties. Consequently, systems of binary and ternary mixtures of 3 wt% anionic, cationic and nonionic surfactants have been investigated at different temperatures. The mixture of anionic [sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS)] and cationic [cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)] surfactants exhibits a remarkable high viscosity peak at weight ratio of 80/20 CTAB/SDS. No wormlike micelles have been detected for binary mixtures of anionic- nonionic (Triton-X 100) nor for ternary mixtures of SDS/CTAB/Triton-X 100 surfactants. Approximate relations have been introduced for evaluating the thermodynamic change from spherical to one-dimensional supramolecular aggregate. Conductivity measurements have been performed for supporting the present investigation. The results reveal a new physical insight called Critical Intermolecular Forces (CIF), which is responsible for the transition phenomenon from three to one-dimensional shape of aggregate. It has been concluded that the suggested theory of CIF plays as a powerful tool in understanding not only the transition state towards wormlike micelles together with the associated significant increasing in solution viscosity, but also for helping researchers who are interested in exploring any kind of new wormlike systems
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Comparative Anti-glycation and α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Studies of Metabolite, 9,12-Dihydroxy-9,10-pregna-4,6-diene-3,20-dione with Dydrogesterone

AZIZUDDIN, SAIMA RASHEED, SUAD NAHEED, MUHAMMAD IQBAL CHOUDHARY

Dydrogesterone (1) and its microbial hydroxylated metabolite 9,12-dihydroxy-9,10-pregna-4,6-diene-3,20-dione (2) were screened for their anti-glycation and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Dydrogesterone (1) showed potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50 = 95.6±1.3µM) when compared with 1-deoxynojirimycin used as standard (IC50 = 440.99±0.01 µM), while compound 2 was found to be weak inhibitor (IC50 = 824.3±6.1 µM). When evaluated for anti-glycation activities, both compounds 1 and 2 were inactive
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Effect of Wheat Straw Pretreatments and Glue Formulations on Particle Board Properties

SIDRA JABEEN, SHAHID NAVEED, SANA YOUSAF AND NAVEED RAMZAN

In this paper, the effect of wheat straw (WS) pretreatments and glue formulations on mechanical (i.e. Compressive Strength (CS) and Impact Strength (IS)) and water resistance properties (i.e. Thickness Swelling (TS) and water absorption (WA)) of particle board have been investigated and the results have been compared with conventional wooden particleboard . Wheat straw was treated with steam available at 110°C and 20 psig, for the retention time of 5, 10 & 15 min. The solution of 10% HCl was also used for removing the lignin. Particleboard was prepared by bonding treated WS with four types of glue recipes of synthetic and natural binders like urea formaldehyde (UF), polyvinyl acetate (PVA), corn flour (CF) and wheat flour (WF). The particle board was formed at the hydraulic pressure and temperature of 2800 psig and 80°C respectively. It was observed that WS particleboard has low mechanical strength and high water resistance in comparison with conventional board. The particle board prepared with HCl cured wheat straw and glue having high urea formaldehyde and corn flour has higher CS and IS as well as low TS and WA. It may be concluded that wheat straw is a good substitute of wood for particle board while using HCl as a modifying chemical and strong binders like urea formaldehyde and corn flour.
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Evaluation of Thermal Stability of Some Organically Modified Clays

MOHAMMAD SHAKIRULLAH, IMTIAZ AHMAD, MUHAMMAD ISHAQ AND HAMEED ULLAH

The paper is focused on the influence of some organic modifiers on the thermal stability of the clay-organic intercalates. The organic modifiers used were rubber, coal, thermosetting plastic, polystyrene and polyvinyl chloride Melt intercalation procedure was used. Modification with organic modifiers was performed at 400 oC. TG-DTA study was performed to evaluate the thermal stability of the resultant intercalates. Thermal properties were improved significantly in case of organically modified clay samples. Among the modifiers used, poly styrene proved very effective in case of crude clay while in case of pre baked clay, intercalation with rubber caused significant improvement in thermal stability. Thus, such intercalations are suggested to be effective if the clays under study are to be used at elevated temperature.
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Effect of Template on Chiral Separation of Phenylalanine using Molecularly Imprinted Membrane in Aqueous Medium

NOAMAN UL HAQ, JOONG KON PARK

L-Phenylalanine (L-Phe) and D-Phenylalanine (D-Phe) imprinted poly [(acrylonitrile)-co-(acrylic acid)] membranes were prepared by wet phase inversion method for chiral separation. The chiral separation ability of molecularly imprinted copolymer membranes towards the underivatized D,L-Phe aqueous mixture was evaluated by ultrafiltration experiment. The novel membranes show continuous permselectivity but chiral resolution ability of L-Phe imprinted membrane was much better than that of D-Phe. It was observed that both membranes simultaneously, selectively reject, selectively adsorbed and selectively permeate solute. The achieved adsorption selectivities of L-Phe imprinted membrane [Ads]L and D-Phe imprinted membrane [Ads]D were 2.6 and 2.40 respectively. Permselectivity of L-Phe imprinted membrane [Perm]L was 2.56 while D-Phe imprinted membrane’s permselectivity [Perm]D was 2.03. The rejection selectivities of L-Phe and D-Phe imprinted membranes were [Rej]L=0.32 and [Rej]D =0.28 respectively
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Thermodynamic and Kinetic Studies of Chromium (VI) Adsorption by Sawdust Activated Carbon

Mohammad Ilyas, Nadir Khan, Qamar Sultana

Low cost activated carbon, prepared from saw dust of Ziziphus jujube by chemical activation with phosphoric acid (H3PO4) was characterized and utilized for the removal of Cr (VI) ions from aqueous solutions under different conditions of solution pH, contact time, initial concentration, carbon dose and temperature. Adsorption of Cr (VI) ions was found highly pH dependent that increased with decrease in solution pH. The removal of Cr (VI) ions increased with increase in temperature, initial concentration and contact time until equilibrium was established. Langmuir’s isotherm model and pseudo - second order kinetic equation were found better fitted to describe the experimental data. Thermodynamic study revealed the feasibility, spontaneity and endothermic nature of the adsorption process. The used carbon was regenerated by treating with HCl solution. In comparison to other adsorbents, the results indicated that the prepared saw dust activated carbon could be an eco-environment friendly and efficient adsorbent for removal of Cr (VI) ions from aqueous solutions.
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In vitro Evaluation of Anti-Microbial Potential of the Leaf Extracts of Acacia modesta

Salman Zafar, Aziz Khan, Zahida Parveen, Momin Khan, Kamin Khan

Infectious diseases caused by micro-organisms are transmissible and infect a large group of population. Investigations were carried out for studying the phytochemistry and biological potential of the leaves of Acacia modesta. Dried and finely ground leaves were extracted with ethanol. Different fractions were obtained by extracting the crude extract with n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate. Fractions of n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, crude extract and the aqueous layer left behind were evaluated for their anti-microbial potential by determining the zone of inhibition against different bacterial strains. All fractions showed positive anti-bacterial activity except ethyl acetate fraction. However the aqueous layer showed activity which is significantly higher than the standard antibiotics used in this study. In conclusion the more active the compounds found in leaves, the more polar they were in nature. Bioassay guided isolation of these active compounds from aqueous fraction may lead to potential anti-bacterial metabolites from Acacia modesta
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Synthesis and Screening of in vitro Antibacterial and Enzyme Inhibitory Activity of N,N-disubstituted 4-Chlorobenzenesulfonamides

Aziz-ur-Rehman, Khadija Nafeesa, Muhammad Athar Abbasi, Irshad Ahmad, Saira Afzal

Sulfonamide, pharmacologically important class of compounds, is of significant interest for scientists due to increased resistance in microbes against the existing drug constituents. So the aim of following research work was to synthesize new more effective series of compounds. A facile and environmentally benign series of N-(substituted phenyl)-4-chlorobenzenesulfonamides, 3a-e, were synthesized by gearing up substituted aniline, 2a-e, with 4-chlorobenzenesulfonyl chloride (1) in basic aqueous media under dynamic pH control, 9-10. All these sulfonamides were treated with alkyl/aralkyl halides, 4-6 as electrophiles, in presence of NaH and DMF as aprotic solvent to yield N-(substituted phenyl)-N-alkyl/aralkyl-4-chlorobenzenesulfonamides, 7a-e to 9a-e. Spectroscopic analysis IR, 1H-NMR and EIMS helped to corroborate the structure of all the derivatives. All the compounds were then analyzed for antibacterial analysis and enzyme inhibition potential. Most of the derivatives were found to exhibit great biological potential.
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Purification and Characterization of 29 kDa Acid Phosphatase from Germinating Melon Seeds

Umber Zaman, Rubina Naz, Asma Saeed, Mehrin Sherazi, Ahmad Saeed

Not much progress on the purification and characterization of low molecular weight acid phosphatases from plants has been made as yet. In the current study a low molecular weight acid phosphatase from seedling of melon was purified about 114-fold with specific activity of 45 U/ mg of protein and a recovery of 3 %. The enzyme was found to be homogeneous and showed a single band corresponding to 29 kDa on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The Km for p-nitrophenyl phosphate was found to be 0.175 mM and Vmax was 42 µmol of substrate hydrolyzed /min/mg of protein at pH 5.5 and at 37° C. The enzyme showed its optimum activity at pH 5.0 and 50o C. The enzyme was thermostable and it retained 70 % activity for 45 min at 60o C. The pH stability was 4.8-6.0. Phosphate, vanadate, molybdate and fluoride acted as strong inhibitors. Metal ions such as Zn+2, Cu+2, Ag+1 and Hg+2 deactivated the enzyme while other divalent ions such as Ca+2 and Mg+2 had no effect.
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